Concerns about climate change have led to the development of legal frameworks, including national regulations and international protocols to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. Current mitigation measures, however, may not be sufficient to limit global warming to an average of 2°C since the pre-industrial period. Other approaches may therefore be required, including adaptation measures and climate engineering initiatives. Only a few legal frameworks are available to regulate adaptation initiatives and to constrain climate engineering approaches whose potential side-effects are not always sufficiently well known. This Article provides a brief overview of scientific progress made to better assess climate change and addresses possible societal responses, including the mitigation, adaptation and climate engineering strategies. It provides a brief summary of current knowledge about expected climate change as a basis for the definition of future international climate policies and associated legal frameworks.